On this page, we review three frameworks that will support our work this week.




The philosophy of the New Literacies Teacher Leader Institute is based on the time-honored approach of “learning by doing.” The aim of Project-Based Inquiry (PBI) is to provide the opportunity for you to engage in what Newman, Bryck, and Nagaoka (2001) describe as authentic intellectual work. They describe the distinctive characteristics of authentic intellectual work as the “construction of knowledge through disciplined inquiry in order to produce products that have value beyond school” (p. 14). Through a focus on authentic intellectual work, we aim to engage you in learning opportunities that connect to your world. Likewise, elements of project-based inquiry possess what John Dewey referred to as productive inquiry, which is "that aspect of any activity where we are deliberately (although not always consciously) seeking what we need in order to do what we want to do” (Cook and Brown, 2005, p. 62). By adding Global to PBI, we acknowledgeOur aims are to engage you in intellectual work that has depth, duration, and complexity, and to challenge and motivate you toward knowledge creation that relates to your educational context.



Framework #1: Project-Based Inquiry (PBI) Global


PBI Global Image.jpg



PBI is a process for posing and responding to questions. At the heart of the PBI process is inquiry. The PBI model we are featuring in the Institute focuses on questioning, gathering information, creatively synthesizing information, evaluating, and finally sharing a product of learning.
The starting point is developing a compelling question. So, what makes a question a good question?

Why use PBI-Global?


The aim of the project-based approach is to provide the opportunity for students to engage in what Newman, Bryck, and Nagaoka (2001) describe as authentic intellectual work. They describe the distinctive characteristics of authentic intellectual work as the “construction of knowledge through disciplined inquiry in order to produce products that have value beyond school” (p. 14). Through a focus on authentic intellectual work, we aim to engage students in learning opportunities that connect to their world. Likewise, elements of project-based inquiry possess what John Dewey referred to as productive inquiry, which is "that aspect of any activity where we are deliberately (although not always consciously) seeking what we need in order to do what we want to do” (Cook and Brown, 2005, p. 62). Our aims are to engage students in intellectual work that has depth, duration, and complexity, and to challenge and motivate students toward knowledge creation that is creative and innovative.


PBI-Global is an effective process to use when having students focus on grand challenges for education. Several organizations have articulated grand challenges for education, including the National Academy of Sciences, the White House 21st Century Grand Challenges, and the International Millennium Project. The topics include important issues facing humanity, such as affordable and sustainable energy, clean water, health informatics, global ethics, the brain initiative, etc. By having students from different cultures collaborate and work to solve problems, we are creating a global response to these challenges.




Framework #2: Cognitive Theory


This week we are using Lorin Anderson's revised Bloom's taxonomy for classifying thinking according to cognitive complexity.
BloomsBanner.png
Figure 1: Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy by Anderson et al. (2001).

Figure 2: The Inverted Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy signals the importance of more time and focus on analyze, evaluate, and create—which are important in the new learning ecology. From Spires, H. A., Wiebe, E., Young, C. A., Hollebrands, K., & Lee, J. K. (2012).

Figure 3: Inverted Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy with Technology Tools provides examples of what digital tools can be used to facilitate the different levels of Bloom’s thinking skills. From http://neilatkin.com/2013/05/07/vak-blooms-solo-and-samr-do-educators-need-to-know-this-stuff/

PBI encourages students to think at multiple levels across the levels of Bloom's taxonomy, but ultimately privileges the highest order thinking in the creative process.



Framework #3: TPACK


TPACK.png

=


Adapted from Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) from Mishra & Koehler (2006). From http://www.tpack.org

PBI and TPACK


In the diagram above, notice how PBI is connected to pedagogical knowledge. During the Institute you will be using PBI as the primary pedagogical approach for the plan you will develop. You will bring your content knowledge to the process of planning. Finally, we will model the use of a variety of technology tools that can be used to support communication and creativity in your plan. You will make decisions about which tools to include in your plan based on your content and pedagogical goals.


Connections Among the Frameworks


PBI, Cognition, TPACK, and New Literacies


  • PBI provides a useful instructional context to help students develop new literacies as well as use new literacies to learn challenging content (e.g., science, math, language, history, etc.).
  • New frameworks for describing cognition or the way students think suggest that we should move toward more original content creation.
  • TPACK provides teachers a useful framework for reasoning through the development of instructional ideas to support students development of new literacies skills and dispositions.
  • New Literacies include ways of thinking that have emerged from changes in how information is created, shared, and retrieved. These changes have been driven in part by emerging technologies and interaction with digital content.

Resources to Support your Work


Buck Institute for Education online at http://www.bie.org/

Julie Coiro's website addressing Instructional Strategies for Critically Evaluating Online Sources

For more on Anderson's revised Bloom's taxonomy see http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy

References


Cook, S. & Brown, J.S. (2005). Bridging epistemologies: The generational knowledge between organizational knowledge and organizational knowing. In S.E. Little & T. Ray, (Eds.). Managing knowledge: An essential reader (2nd ed.). (pp.51-84). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Dewey, J. (1927). The public and its problems. Athens, OH: Shallow Press.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.

Newman, F., Bryk, A. & Nagaoka, J. (2001). Authentic intellectual work and standardized tests: Conflict or coexistence? Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Spires, H., Hervey, L., & Watson, T. (2013). Scaffolding the TPACK framework with literacy teachers: New literacies, new minds. In S. Kajder's and C.A. Young (Eds.). Research on English language arts and technology (33 - 61). Greenwich, CN: Information Age Press.

Spires, H., Hervey, L., Morris, G., & Stelpflug, C. (2012). Energizing project-based inquiry: Middle grade students read, write, and create videos. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55(6), 483-493. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JAAL.00058

Spires, H., Kerkhoff, S., Graham, A., & Lee, J. (2014). Model for Inquiry-Based Disciplinary Literacy. Disciplinary Literacy for Deeper Learning MOOC-Ed. Friday Institute for Educational Innovation. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University.